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Mapping the leaf proteome of Miscanthus sinensis and its application to the identification of heat-responsive proteins

Sharmin, Shamima Akhtar, Alam, Iftekhar, Rahman, Md. Atikur, Kim, Kyung-Hee, Kim, Yong-Goo, Lee, Byung-Hyun
Planta 2013 v.238 no.3 pp. 459-474
Miscanthus sinensis, biosynthesis, cell growth, chalcone, climate, databases, energy crops, gels, genes, heat stress, heat treatment, lasers, leaves, mass spectrometry, orthophosphates, pentose phosphate cycle, photosynthesis, protein kinases, protein synthesis, proteins, proteome, pyruvic acid, ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase, signal transduction, starch, sugars, transcription (genetics), transportation, trypsin
Miscanthus sinensis is a promising bioenergy crop; however, its genome is poorly represented in sequence databases. As an initial step in the comprehensive analysis of the M. sinensis proteome, we report a reference 2-DE protein map of the leaf. A total of 316 protein spots were excised from the gels, digested with trypsin and subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) or MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Two hundred and thirty-two protein spots were identified, which are involved in a variety of cellular functions through distinct metabolic pathways. Functional annotation of the proteins revealed a nearly complete C3 and C4 cycle, starch and sugar synthesis pathway, glycolysis pathway, a significant portion of the pentose phosphate pathway, and many enzymes involved in secondary metabolism such as flavonoid/isoflavonoid, kaurene, chalcone, sesquiterpene and lignin biosynthesis. Other proteins belong to primary metabolism, transcription, protein synthesis, protein destination/storage, disease/defense, cell growth/division, transportation and signal transduction. To test the applicability of the constructed map, we studied the effect of heat stress on M. sinensis leaf proteome. Twenty-five protein spots were upregulated, five were newly induced and twenty-five spots were downregulated by heat treatment. The differentially accumulated proteins were involved in photosynthesis, energy metabolism, gene transcription, protein kinases and phosphatases, signal transduction, protein synthesis and heat shock responses. C4-specific pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, Rubisco large subunit, Rubisco activase and some associated proteins were upregulated during heat stress and tend to restore upon recovery. Identification of these proteins provides some important clues regarding the way M. sinensis copes with hot climate. This work represents the first extensive proteomic description of M. sinensis and provides a reference map and heat-responsive candidates for future molecular and physiological studies of this bioenergy crop.