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Effects of tebuconazole on cytochrome P450 enzymes, oxidative stress, and endocrine disruption in male rats

Yang, Jr‐Di, Liu, Shing‐Hwa, Liao, Mei‐Hsiu, Chen, Ruei‐Ming, Liu, Pei‐Yu, Ueng, Tzuu‐Huei
Environmental toxicology 2018 v.33 no.8 pp. 899-907
aniline, blood serum, catalase, cytochrome P-450, enzyme activity, epididymis, erythromycin, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase, hormone antagonists, inhibitory concentration 50, kidneys, liver, liver microsomes, males, oxidative stress, rats, spermatozoa, superoxide dismutase, tebuconazole, testes, testosterone, triazoles
The major objective of the present study was to determine the ability of a triazole fungicide tebuconazole to induce cytochrome P450‐dependent monooxygenases, oxidative stress, and endocrine‐disrupting activity using male rats treated with tebuconazole at 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg p.o. once daily for 28 days. In liver, tebuconazole dose‐dependently increased microsomal contents of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b₅ and the activities of NADPH‐cytochrome P450 reductase, 7‐ethoxyresorufin O‐deethylase, methoxyresorufin O‐demethylase, pentoxyresorufin O‐dealkylase, 7‐ethoxycoumarin O‐deethylase, aniline hydroxylase, and erythromycin N‐demethylase. In kidney, tebuconazole increased 7‐ethoxycoumarin O‐deethylase activity without affecting other monooxygenase activities. In marked contrast to liver and kidney, tebuconazole decreased testicular 7‐ethoxyresorufin O‐deethylase, methoxyresorufin O‐demethylase, 7‐ethoxycoumarin O‐deethylase, aniline hydroxylase, and erythromycin N‐demethylase activities. The results of immunoblot analysis of liver microsomes of controls and tebuconazole‐treated rats revealed that tebuconazole induced CYP1A1/2, CYP2B1/2, CYP2E1, and CYP3A proteins in liver. Additions of tebuconazole to liver microsomes inhibited microsomal 7‐ethoxycoumarin O‐deethylase activity in vitro (IC₅₀ = 1.50–1.69 µM). Treatment of rats with tebuconazole decreased glutathione content and increased glutathione S‐transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in liver; increased superoxide dismutase activities in kidney and testis; but decreased glutathione S‐transferase activity in testis. Treatments with tebuconazole decreased serum testosterone concentration and cauda epididymal sperm count. The present study demonstrates that tebuconazole induces a multiplicity of CYPs and oxidative stress in liver; inhibits testicular P450 and glutathione S‐transferase activities; and produces anti‐androgenic effects in male rats.