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Bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have similar high antioxidant capacity, in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase while diverse phenolic composition and concentration

Luis Mojica, Allison Meyer, Mark A. Berhow, Elvira González de Mejía
Food research international 2015 v.69 pp. 38-48
epicatechin, myricetin, high performance liquid chromatography, Phaseolus vulgaris, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, nutrients, black beans, syringic acid, oxidative stress, correlation, alpha-glucosidase, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, cultivars, tannins, catechin, ferulic acid, colorimetry, vanillic acid, delphinidin, petunidin, alpha-amylase, malvidin, Mexico, Brazil
Common beans are a good source of essential nutrients such as protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals; they also contain phenolic compounds and other phytochemicals. Phenolic compounds exhibit high antioxidant capacity that promotes health benefits by reducing oxidative stress. The objective was to compare the composition and quantity of anthocyanins and other non-colored phenolic compounds in fifteen improved bean cultivars from Mexico and Brazil and their relation to antioxidant capacity and enzymes related to type-2 diabetes. Samples were analyzed for total phenolic compounds (TP), flavonoids, antioxidant capacity (AC), tannins and total anthocyanins. Type and quantity were evaluated by HPLC-ESI-MS. Delphinidin glucoside (0.9–129.0mg/100g dry coat), petunidin glucoside (0.7–115.0mg/100g dry coat) and malvidin glucoside (0.14–52.0mg/100g dry coat). Anthocyanidins were positively correlated when quantified by HPLC and colorimetric analysis (R=0.99). Cultivar Negro-Otomi presented the highest concentration of anthocyanins (250mg/100g dry coat). Seventeen non-colored phenolic compounds were identified among cultivars; catechin, myricetin 3-O-arabinoside, epicatechin, vanillic acid, syringic acid and o-coumaric acid, presented the highest concentrations among identified phenolic compounds. The AC of all fifteen bean cultivars did not show significant differences (p>0.05) ranging from 185.2 (FM-67) to 233.9 (FM-199)mmol TE/g coat. Compounds in the coat extracts of pinto and black cultivars were the most efficient to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Studied cultivars differed in composition and concentration of phenolics including anthocyanins; however, there was no effect on AC as measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Black beans contained delphinidin and ferulic acid, compounds commonly used as ingredients in functional foods due to their associated health benefits.