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Reductive carboxylation and 2-hydroxyglutarate formation by wild-type IDH2 in breast carcinoma cells

Smolková, Katarína, Dvořák, Aleš, Zelenka, Jaroslav, Vítek, Libor, Ježek, Petr
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 2015 v.65 pp. 125-133
adenosine triphosphate, biopsy, blood serum, breast neoplasms, carbon, carbon dioxide, carboxylation, cell respiration, citrates, glucose, hypoxia, isocitrate dehydrogenase, malates, mitochondria, mutants, mutation, myeloid leukemia, neoplasm cells, oxygen, patients, prediction, stable isotopes, urine
Mitochondrial NADPH-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, IDH2, and cytosolic IDH1, catalyze reductive carboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate. Both idh2 and idh1 monoallelic mutations are harbored in grade 2/3 gliomas, secondary glioblastomas and acute myeloid leukemia. Mutant IDH1/IDH2 enzymes were reported to form an oncometabolite r-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), further strengthening malignancy. We quantified CO2-dependent reductive carboxylation glutaminolysis (RCG) and CO2-independent 2HG production in HTB-126 and MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells by measuring ¹³C incorporation from 1-¹³C-glutamine into citrate, malate, and 2HG. For HTB-126 cells, ¹³C-citrate, ¹³C-malate, and ¹³C-2-hydroxyglutarate were enriched by 2-, 5-, and 15-fold at 5mM glucose (2-, 2.5-, and 13-fold at 25mM glucose), respectively, after 6h. Such enrichment decreased by 6% with IDH1 silencing, but by 30–50% upon IDH2 silencing while cell respiration and ATP levels rose up to 150%. Unlike 2HG production RCG declined at decreasing CO2. At hypoxia (5% O2), IDH2-related and unrelated ¹³C-accumulation into citrate and malate increased 1.5–2.5-fold with unchanged IDH2 expression; whereas hypoxic 2HG formation did not. ¹³C–2HG originated by ∼50% from other than IDH2 or IDH1 reactions, substantiating remaining activity in IDH1&2-silenced cells. Relatively high basal ¹²C–2HG levels existed (5-fold higher vs. non-tumor HTB-125 cells) and ¹³C–2HG was formed despite the absence of any idh2 and idh1 mutations in HTB-126 cells. Since RCG is enhanced at hypoxia (frequent in solid tumors) and 2HG can be formed without idh1/2 mutations, we suggest 2HG as an analytic marker (in serum, urine, or biopsies) predicting malignancy of breast cancer in all patients.