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Charging and Transport Dynamics of a Flow-Through Electrode Capacitive Deionization System B
- Qu, Yatian, Campbell, Patrick G., Hemmatifar, Ali, Knipe, Jennifer M., Loeb, Colin K., Reidy, John J., Hubert, Mckenzie A., Stadermann, Michael, Santiago, Juan G.
- The Journal of physical chemistry 2018 v.122 no.1 pp. 240-249
- adsorption, capacitance, deionization, electrodes, mass transfer, models
- We present a study of the interplay among electric charging rate, capacitance, salt removal, and mass transport in “flow-through electrode” capacitive deionization (CDI) systems. We develop two models describing coupled transport and electro-adsorption/desorption which capture salt removal dynamics. The first model is a simplified, unsteady zero-dimensional volume-averaged model which identifies dimensionless parameters and figures of merits associated with cell performance. The second model is a higher fidelity area-averaged model which captures both spatial and temporal responses of charging. We further conducted an experimental study of these dynamics and considered two salt transport regimes: (1) advection-limited regime and (2) dispersion-limited regime. We use these data to validate models. The study shows that, in the advection-limited regime, differential charge efficiency determines the salt adsorption at the early stage of the deionization process. Subsequently, charging transitions to a quasi-steady state where salt removal rate is proportional to applied current scaled by the inlet flow rate. In the dispersion-dominated regime, differential charge efficiency, cell volume, and diffusion rates govern adsorption dynamics and flow rate has little effect. In both regimes, the interplay among mass transport rate, differential charge efficiency, cell capacitance, and (electric) charging current governs salt removal in flow-through electrode CDI.