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Genome-wide analysis and identification of the SMXL gene family in apple (Malus × domestica)
- Li, Rui, An, Jian-Ping, You, Chun-Xiang, Wang, Xiao-Fei, Hao, Yu-Jin
- Tree genetics & genomes 2018 v.14 no.4 pp. 61
- Arabidopsis, Bryophyta, Malus domestica, abiotic stress, apples, bioinformatics, flowers, fruits, gene duplication, genes, genome-wide association study, leaves, models, phylogeny, proteins, rice, roots, signal transduction, stems, strigolactones
- Strigolactones (SLs) are a recently discovered type of plant hormone that controls various developmental processes. The DWARF53 (D53) protein in rice and the SMAX1-LIKE (SMXL) family in Arabidopsis repress SL signaling. In this study, bioinformatics analyses were performed, and 236 SMXL proteins were identified in 28 sequenced plants. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that all potential SMXL proteins could be divided into three groups and that the SMXL proteins may have originated in Bryophytes. An analysis of the SMXL chromosomal locations suggested that gene duplication events at different times led to expansion of the SMXL family members in Angiospermae. Subsequently, the gene structure and protein modeling of MdSMXLs showed that they are highly conserved. The expression patterns of MdSMXLs indicated that they were expressed in different organs of apple (stems, roots, leaves, flowers, and fruits) at varying levels and that MdSMXLs may participate in the SL signaling pathway and the response to abiotic stress. This study provides a valuable foundation for additional investigations into the function of the SMXL gene family in plants.