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An extraction-assay system: Evaluation on flavonols in plant resistance to Pb and Cd by supercritical extraction-gas chromatography

Zhang, Xu, Yang, Huanhuan, Wang, Xinlei, Song, Wen, Cui, Zhaojie
Frontiers of environmental science & engineering 2018 v.12 no.4 pp. 6
acetone, byproducts, cadmium, energy, ethanol, flavonols, gene expression, heavy metals, lead, liquids, methanol, oxidative stress, solid phase extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, temperature, toxicology, ultrasonics
In this research, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) showed better extraction effect when compared with Solid- liquid extraction (SLE), Soxhlet extraction (SE) and Ultrasonic extraction (UE), not only in the rate but also the time. The comparison among these three extraction modifiers, including acetone, ethanol and methanol demonstrated that ethanol was preferred to SFE due to its high extraction effect and low toxicology. In addition, parameter of SFE, influence of temperature and pressure were investigated, and the best extraction effect was achieved at the optima conditions, temperature of 40°C and the pressure of 35 MPa. Thus, SFE is a highly effective method for flavonols extraction, requiring minimum energy and producing non-toxic byproduct. SFE-GC system is applied for the evaluation on flavonols that plays a key role in plant resistance to heavy metal, with its content and synthetase gene expression significantly increasing in plant when threatened by heavy metal. Besides, results indicated that flavonols can improve plant resistance to oxidative stress by quenching the redundant ROS in matrix.