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Environmental control of the seasonal life cycle of a zoophytophagous mirid, Adelphocoris triannulatus (Hemiptera: Miridae)
- Tajima, Jun-ya, Miyahara, Ryôhei, Terao, Misato, Shintani, Yoshinori
- Applied entomology and zoology 2018 v.53 no.3 pp. 333-341
- Adelphocoris, autumn, diapause, eggs, females, grasslands, insects, multivoltine habit, nymphs, photoperiod, rearing, spring, summer, temperature, winter, Japan
- Adelphocoris triannulatus (Stål) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a zoophytophagous bug that inhabits grasslands and crop fields, and is widely distributed in eastern Asia. In this study, the seasonal occurrence and environmental factors controlling the seasonal life cycle of this bug were investigated in a local population in southern Kyushu, Japan. When insects were reared under different photoperiods at 20 and 25 °C, they produced diapause or nondiapause eggs depending on the photoperiod: when reared under short-day photoperiods (≤ 13 h/day), females laid diapause eggs, whereas they laid nondiapause eggs when reared under long-day photoperiods (≥ 14 h/day). Because the developmental duration of the pre-adult stages and maturation (minimum duration of one generation) is estimated to be approximately 30 days at summer temperatures, these results suggest that this bug has a multivoltine seasonal life cycle. In agreement with the laboratory results, only nondiapause eggs were produced until mid-August in the field, and an increasing proportion of diapause eggs were produced from early September. In addition to these findings, field sampling from spring to autumn in 2009 indicated that three or four generations were produced in one year. These results suggest that egg diapause plays a role in preventing nymphs of A. triannulatus from developing in winter, and thereby ensures the survival of the population in adverse seasons.