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Spatial Distribution and Correlative Study of the Total and the Available Heavy Metals in Soil From a Typical Lead Smelting Area, China
- Zhang, Linlin, Dai, Shijian, Zhao, Xiaoxue, Nie, Wei, Lv, Jungang
- Soil & sediment contamination 2018 v.27 no.7 pp. 563-572
- arsenic, atomic absorption spectrometry, bioavailability, cadmium, cities, equations, factories, heavy metals, lead, mercury, pollution, soil, soil sampling, spectrometers, China
- Representative soil samples (n = 453) were collected from a lead smelting area in central China. The total and the available contents of several hazardous elements, including lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury were determined. Inorganic acid were used for the pretreatment of the total element analysis. DTPA (Diethylene triamine pentacetate acid) digestion, an effective pretreatment procedure for the biological availability assessment of heavy metals, was used for bio-available assessment in this study. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were employed for the instrumental analysis. The results indicated that the soil samples were seriously polluted by mercury, arsenic, lead and cadmium around the smelting factories, comparing to many other cities in China. Spatial distributions of the metal contents were then illustrated with maps. For 220 samples in pollution areas, average bio-effectiveness rates of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in soils were 25.9%, 17.2%, 0.58% and 0.11%, respectively. The relationships of the total and the available contents of metals were investigated, among which lead and cadmium were found to can be expressed as linear and power function. These equations were tested inversely and further verified by the data from six randomly selected sites. The results will be helpful to assess the bioavailable contents of lead and cadmium fast and accurately only by the total contents and functional calculation in similar study.