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Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis in north-central Pacific region of Ecuador: A clinico-epidemiological feature

Author:
Gomez, Eduardo A., Kato, Hirotomo, Torres-Romero, Edison X., Velez, Lenin N., Villegas, Nancy V., Martillo, Virginia P., Zambrano, Flavio C., Kubo, Makoto, Hashiguchi, Kazue, Hashiguchi., Yoshihisa
Source:
Acta tropica 2018 v.185 pp. 204-211
ISSN:
0001-706X
Subject:
Leishmania guyanensis, arms (limbs), cytochrome b, ears, ecoregions, face, leishmaniasis, neck, parasites, patients, polymerase chain reaction, rural health, Ecuador
Abstract:
The current four year study was undertaken to investigate the clinical and epidemiological features of Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis infections in Valle Hermoso, Santo Domingo de Los Tsachilas province, north-central Pacific areas of Ecuador. A total of 155 parasitologically confirmed (Leishmania-amastigote-positive) clinical cases diagnosed at a rural health center during January 2014-December 2017 were analyzed thoroughly. Molecular characterization of the causative Leishmania parasites from different endemic sites within the study areas was performed by PCR amplification of cytochrome b (cyt b) sequencing. All the FTA-card and/or smear impregnated materials tested were characterized, and identified as L. (V.) guyanensis, without detecting any other Leishmania species. The following features were described: 1) the majority of patients were suffered from a single ulcer lesion (simple and mild to chronic), followed by multiple lesions, including recidiva cutis-“like” and Chiclero’s ulcer-“like” clinical forms; 2) the majority (65.70%) of lesions were less than 10 mm in size, and distributed mainly on the upper body regions (arm, forearm, face, and neck including ear and head); 3) about 30% (29.68%) of the subjects tested were less than 10 years of age, strongly suggesting the intra- and/or peri-domestic transmission of the disease in the areas. The current clinico-epidemiological feature detected emphasizes the need for further such investigations of the L. (V.) guyanensis infections prevalent at different Pacific ecoregions of Ecuador, including Amazon regions.
Agid:
6051856