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PMF and PSCF based source apportionment of PM2.5 at a regional background site in North China

Zong, Zheng, Wang, Xiaoping, Tian, Chongguo, Chen, Yingjun, Fu, Shanfei, Qu, Lin, Ji, Ling, Li, Jun, Zhang, Gan
Atmospheric research 2018 v.203 pp. 207-215
biomass, burning, chemical analysis, combustion, dust, industry, ions, models, particulate emissions, particulates, probability, seasonal variation, water solubility, China, East China Sea, Mongolia, Yellow Sea
To apportion regional PM2.5 (atmospheric particles with aerodynamic diameter<2.5μm) source types and their geographic pattern in North China, 120 daily PM2.5 samples on Beihuangcheng Island (BH, a regional background site in North China) were collected from August 20th, 2014 to September 15th, 2015 showing one-year period. After the chemical analyses on carbonaceous species, water-soluble ions and inorganic elements, various approaches, such as Mann-Kendall test, chemical mass closure, ISORROPIA II model, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) linked with Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF), were used to explore the PM2.5 speciation, sources, and source regions. Consequently, distinct seasonal variations of PM2.5 and its main species were found and could be explained by varying emission source characteristics. Based on PMF model, seven source factors for PM2.5 were identified, which were coal combustion + biomass burning, vehicle emission, mineral dust, ship emission, sea salt, industry source, refined chrome industry with the contribution of 48.21%, 30.33%, 7.24%, 6.63%, 3.51%, 3.2%, and 0.88%, respectively. In addition, PSCF analysis using the daily contribution of each factor from PMF result suggested that Shandong peninsula and Hebei province were identified as the high potential region for coal combustion + biomass burning; Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region was the main source region for industry source; Bohai Sea and East China Sea were found to be of high source potential for ship emission; Geographical region located northwest of BH Island was possessed of high probability for sea salt; Mineral dust presumably came from the region of Mongolia; Refined chrome industry mostly came from Liaoning, Jilin province; The vehicle emission was primarily of BTH region origin, centring on metropolises, such as Beijing and Tianjin. These results provided precious implications for PM2.5 control strategies in North China.