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Immunization of preterm infants with GSK’s hexavalent combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine: A review of safety and immunogenicity

Author:
Omeñaca, Felix, Vázquez, Liliana, Garcia-Corbeira, Pilar, Mesaros, Narcisa, Hanssens, Linda, Dolhain, Jan, Gómez, Ivonne Puente, Liese, Johannes, Knuf, Markus
Source:
Vaccine 2018 v.36 no.7 pp. 986-996
ISSN:
0264-410X
Subject:
Rotavirus, antibodies, antigens, apnea, clinical trials, defense mechanisms, hepatitis B, immune response, immunogenicity, immunoglobulin G, infants, low birth weight, monitoring, pregnancy, premature birth, product safety, risk, secondary immunization, seroprevalence, vaccination, vaccines, viruses
Abstract:
Infants with history of prematurity (<37 weeks gestation) and low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) are at high risk of infection due to functional immaturity of normal physical and immunological defense mechanisms. Despite current recommendations that infants with history of prematurity/LBW should receive routine immunization according to the same schedule and chronological age as full-term infants, immunization is often delayed.Here we summarize 10 clinical studies and 15 years of post-marketing safety surveillance of GSK’s hexavalent vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-B-inactivated-poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae-type-b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, when administered alone, or co-administered with pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, and meningococcal vaccines and respiratory syncytial virus IgG to infants with history of prematurity/LBW in clinical trials.At least 92.5% of infants with history of prematurity/LBW as young as 24 weeks gestation in clinical studies were seropositive to all vaccine antigens after 3-dose primary vaccination with GSK’s hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine, with robust immune responses to booster vaccination. Seropositivity rates and antibody concentrations to hepatitis B and Hib appeared lower in infants with history of prematurity/LBW than term infants. Between 13–30% of medically stable infants with history of prematurity developed apnea after vaccination with GSK’s hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine; usually after dose 1. The occurrence of post-immunization cardiorespiratory events appears to be influenced by the severity of any underlying neonatal condition. Most cardiorespiratory events resolve spontaneously or require minimal intervention. GSK’s hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine was well tolerated in co-administration regimens.GSK’s hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine alone or co-administered with other pediatric vaccines has a clinically acceptable safety and immunogenicity profile when used in infants with history of prematurity/LBW for primary and booster vaccination. Additional studies are needed in very premature and very LBW infants. However, currently available data support using GSK’s hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine to immunize infants with history of prematurity/LBW according to chronological age.
Agid:
6053380