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Immunization of preterm infants with GSK’s hexavalent combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine: A review of safety and immunogenicity

Omeñaca, Felix, Vázquez, Liliana, Garcia-Corbeira, Pilar, Mesaros, Narcisa, Hanssens, Linda, Dolhain, Jan, Gómez, Ivonne Puente, Liese, Johannes, Knuf, Markus
Vaccine 2018 v.36 no.7 pp. 986-996
Rotavirus, antibodies, antigens, apnea, clinical trials, defense mechanisms, hepatitis B, immune response, immunogenicity, immunoglobulin G, infants, low birth weight, monitoring, pregnancy, premature birth, product safety, risk, secondary immunization, seroprevalence, vaccination, vaccines, viruses
Infants with history of prematurity (<37 weeks gestation) and low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) are at high risk of infection due to functional immaturity of normal physical and immunological defense mechanisms. Despite current recommendations that infants with history of prematurity/LBW should receive routine immunization according to the same schedule and chronological age as full-term infants, immunization is often delayed.Here we summarize 10 clinical studies and 15 years of post-marketing safety surveillance of GSK’s hexavalent vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-B-inactivated-poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae-type-b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, when administered alone, or co-administered with pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, and meningococcal vaccines and respiratory syncytial virus IgG to infants with history of prematurity/LBW in clinical trials.At least 92.5% of infants with history of prematurity/LBW as young as 24 weeks gestation in clinical studies were seropositive to all vaccine antigens after 3-dose primary vaccination with GSK’s hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine, with robust immune responses to booster vaccination. Seropositivity rates and antibody concentrations to hepatitis B and Hib appeared lower in infants with history of prematurity/LBW than term infants. Between 13–30% of medically stable infants with history of prematurity developed apnea after vaccination with GSK’s hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine; usually after dose 1. The occurrence of post-immunization cardiorespiratory events appears to be influenced by the severity of any underlying neonatal condition. Most cardiorespiratory events resolve spontaneously or require minimal intervention. GSK’s hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine was well tolerated in co-administration regimens.GSK’s hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine alone or co-administered with other pediatric vaccines has a clinically acceptable safety and immunogenicity profile when used in infants with history of prematurity/LBW for primary and booster vaccination. Additional studies are needed in very premature and very LBW infants. However, currently available data support using GSK’s hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine to immunize infants with history of prematurity/LBW according to chronological age.