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Oral Salmonella challenge and subsequent uptake by the peripheral lymph nodes in calves

Brown, T. R., Edrington, T. S., Genovese, K. J., Loneragan, G. H., Hanson, D. L., Nisbet, D. J.
Journal of food protection 2015 v.78 no.3 pp. 573-578
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Montevideo, calves, exposure duration, feed deprivation, feedlots, gastrointestinal system, lymph nodes, oral administration, water deprivation
Previous attempts to infect peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs) with Salmonella via oral inoculation have been inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a series of experiments to determine whether multiple exposures to an oral challenge would result in Salmonella-positive PLN in cattle. In each of three experiments, calves were inoculated with Salmonella Montevideo. In the first experiment, calves were challenged with either no Salmonella (control), a single oral dose (∼1010; PCON), or 10 consecutive doses in water (∼103; WAT). The positive control treatment resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of Salmonella-positive PLNs, compared with the WAT-treated and control animals. Experiments 2 and 3 were designed to additionally determine if the stress associated with feed and water deprivation influences the systemic spread of Salmonella from the gastrointestinal tract to PLNs. Following 14 days of oral inoculation (average 7.1 × 104 CFU/day) in experiment 1, Salmonella was recovered from one subiliac and one superficial cervical lymph node of calves that were deprived of feed and water (72 h). No treatment differences (P > 0.05) were observed between control and deprived calves. Based on the poor recovery of Salmonella from the PLNs in WAT-challenged calves in experiments 1 and 2, a higher challenge dose (average 1.2 × 107 CFU) was used in experiment 3. The increased dose resulted in the recovery of the challenge strain of Salmonella from the PLNs (70.8 and 75.0% of control and deprived calves, respectively). However, no treatment differences (P > 0.05) were observed between control and deprived calves. Results of this research demonstrated that a substantial oral challenge is required to produce Salmonella-positive PLNs. However, as the challenge periods examined herein were considerably shorter compared with the normal time spent by cattle in feedlots, increased exposure time to lower doses may produce the same effect observed in experiment 3.