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Genetically engineered Newcastle disease virus expressing interleukin-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand for cancer therapy

Fu-Liang Bai, Yin-Hang Yu, Hui Tian, Gui-Ping Ren, Hui Wang, Bing Zhou, Xiao-Hui Han, Qing-Zhong Yu, De-Shan Li
Cancer biology & therapy 2014 v.15 no.9 pp. 1-13
messenger RNA, hepatoma, humans, interferon-gamma, necrosis, immunotherapy, interleukin-2, gene expression, Avian orthoavulavirus 1, mice, genes, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, viruses, immune system, clinical trials, apoptosis
Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) have shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. In this study, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of inserting both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) delivered by rNDV. We demonstrated that rNDV expressing TRAIL (rNDV-TRAIL) or both human IL-2 and TRAIL (rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL) significantly enhanced inherent anti-neoplastic of rNDV by inducing apoptosis. And we showed that apoptosis-related genes mRNA expression was increased after treated with rNDV-TRAIL or rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL compared with rNDV and rNDV-IL-2. We also demonstrated that both rNDV-IL-2 and rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL induced proliferation of the CD4+ and CD8+ in treated mice and elicited expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ antitumor cytokines. These mice treated with oncolytic agents exhibited significant reduction in tumor development compared with mice treated with the parental virus. In addition, experiments in both hepatocellular carcinoma and melanoma-bearing mice demonstrated that the genetically engineered rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL exhibited prolonged animals’ survival compared with rNDV, rNDV-IL-2, and rNDV-TRAIL. In conclusion, the immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy properties of NDV can be enhanced by the introduction of IL-2 and TRAIL genes, whose products initiated a broad cascade of immunological affects and induced tumor cells apoptosis in the microenvironment of the immune system.