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Non-mulberry silk fibroin grafted poly (Є-caprolactone)/nano hydroxyapatite nanofibrous scaffold for dual growth factor delivery to promote bone regeneration

Bhattacharjee, Promita, Naskar, Deboki, Maiti, Tapas K., Bhattacharya, Debasis, Kundu, Subhas C.
Journal of colloid and interface science 2016 v.472 pp. 16-33
Antheraea mylitta, aminolysis, bioactive properties, biodegradability, bones, cell differentiation, cell viability, fibroins, genes, hydroxyapatite, in vitro studies, mechanical properties, nanofibers, silk, tissue engineering, transforming growth factor beta
This study aims at developing biodegradable, mineralized, nanofibrous scaffolds for use in bone regeneration. Scaffolds are loaded with combinations of bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and evaluated in vitro for enhancement in osteoinductivity.Poly(Є-caprolactone) (PCL) doped with different portions of nano-hydroxyapatite is electrospun into nanofibrous scaffolds. Non-mulberry silk fibroin (NSF) obtained from Antheraea mylitta is grafted by aminolysis onto them. Scaffolds prepared have three concentrations of nano-hydroxyapatite: 0% (NSF-PCL), 25% (NSF-PCL/n25), and 50% (NSF-PCL/n50). Growth factor loading is carried out in three different combinations, solely rhBMP-2 (BN25), solely TGF-β (TN25) and rhBMP-2+TGF-β (T/B N25) via carbodiimide coupling.NSF-PCL/n25 showed the best results in examination of mechanical properties, bioactivity, and cell viability. Hence only NSF-PCL/n25 is selected for loading growth factors and subsequent detailed in vitro experiments using MG-63 cell-line. Both growth factors show sustain release kinetics from the matrix. The T/B N25 scaffolds support cellular activity, proliferation, and triggering of bone-associated genes’ expression better and promote earlier cell differentiation. Dual growth factor loaded NSF grafted electrospun PCL/nHAp scaffolds show promise for further development into a suitable scaffold for bone tissue engineering.