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Electrochemical properties of the acetaminophen on the screen printed carbon electrode towards the high performance practical sensor applications

Karikalan, Natarajan, Karthik, Raj, Chen, Shen-Ming, Velmurugan, Murugan, Karuppiah, Chelladurai
Journal of colloid and interface science 2016 v.483 pp. 109-117
Raman spectroscopy, acetaminophen, aspirin, carbon electrodes, detection limit, dimerization, drug formulations, electrochemistry, hydroxylation, kidneys, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, oxidation, pH, scanning electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopy, toxicity
Acetaminophen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as an antipyretic agent for the alternative to aspirin. Conversely, the overdoses of acetaminophen can cause hepatic toxicity and kidney damage. Hence, the determination of acetaminophen receives much more attention in biological samples and also in pharmaceutical formulations. Here, we report a rapid and sensitive detection of the acetaminophen based on the bare (unmodified) screen printed carbon electrode (BSPCE) and its electrochemistry was studied in various pHs. From the observed results, the mechanism of the electro-oxidation of acetaminophen was derived for various pHs. The acetaminophen is not stable in strong acidic and strong alkaline media, which is hydrolyzed and hydroxylated. However, it is stable in intermediate pHs due to the dimerization of acetaminophen. The kinetics of the acetaminophen oxidation was briefly studied and documented in the schemes. In addition, the surface morphology and disorders of BSPCE was probed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the BSPCE determined the acetaminophen with the linear concentration ranging from 0.05 to 190μM and the lower detection limit of 0.013μM. Besides that it reveals the good recoveries towards the pharmaceutical samples and shows the excellent selectivity, sensitivity and stability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the better performance compare to the previously reported unmodified acetaminophen sensors.