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Perfluoroalkyl substances in aquatic environment-comparison of fish and passive sampling approaches

Cerveny, Daniel, Grabic, Roman, Fedorova, Ganna, Grabicova, Katerina, Turek, Jan, Kodes, Vit, Golovko, Oksana, Zlabek, Vladimir, Randak, Tomas
Environmental research 2016 v.144 pp. 92-98
Squalius cephalus, animal use alternatives, aquatic environment, biochemical pathways, environmental quality, fish, liver, monitoring, muscles, perfluorocarbons, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, pollutants, samplers, Czech Republic, Germany
The concentrations of seven perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in 36 European chub (Squalius cephalus) individuals from six localities in the Czech Republic. Chub muscle and liver tissue were analysed at all sampling sites. In addition, analyses of 16 target PFASs were performed in Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCISs) deployed in the water at the same sampling sites. We evaluated the possibility of using passive samplers as a standardized method for monitoring PFAS contamination in aquatic environments and the mutual relationships between determined concentrations.Only perfluorooctane sulphonate was above the LOQ in fish muscle samples and 52% of the analysed fish individuals exceeded the Environmental Quality Standard for water biota. Fish muscle concentration is also particularly important for risk assessment of fish consumers. The comparison of fish tissue results with published data showed the similarity of the Czech results with those found in Germany and France.However, fish liver analysis and the passive sampling approach resulted in different fish exposure scenarios. The total concentration of PFASs in fish liver tissue was strongly correlated with POCIS data, but pollutant patterns differed between these two matrices. The differences could be attributed to the metabolic activity of the living organism. In addition to providing a different view regarding the real PFAS cocktail to which the fish are exposed, POCISs fulfil the Three Rs strategy (replacement, reduction, and refinement) in animal testing.