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Associations among environmental exposure to manganese, neuropsychological performance, oxidative damage and kidney biomarkers in children

Nascimento, Sabrina, Baierle, Marília, Göethel, Gabriela, Barth, Anelise, Brucker, Natália, Charão, Mariele, Sauer, Elisa, Gauer, Bruna, Arbo, Marcelo Dutra, Altknecht, Louise, Jager, Márcia, Dias, Ana Cristina Garcia, de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli, Pierre, Tatiana Saint’, Gioda, Adriana, Moresco, Rafael, Garcia, Solange Cristina
Environmental research 2016 v.147 pp. 32-43
albuminuria, atomic absorption spectrometry, beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase, biomarkers, blood, children, dithiothreitol, drinking water, education, environmental exposure, gender, kidneys, lipids, malondialdehyde, manganese, memory, neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, parents, porphobilinogen synthase, proteins, renal function, rural areas, thiols, urban areas, urban population, visual perception
Environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) results in several toxic effects, mainly neurotoxicity. This study investigated associations among Mn exposure, neuropsychological performance, biomarkers of oxidative damage and early kidney dysfunction in children aged 6–12 years old. Sixty-three children were enrolled in this study, being 43 from a rural area and 20 from an urban area. Manganese was quantified in blood (B-Mn), hair (H-Mn) and drinking water using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The neuropsychological functions assessed were attention, perception, working memory, phonological awareness and executive functions – inhibition. The Intelligence quotient (IQ) was also evaluated. The biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PCO), δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), reactivation indexes with dithiothreitol (ALA-RE/DTT) and ZnCl2 (ALA-RE/ZnCl2), non-protein thiol groups, as well as microalbuminuria (mALB) level and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity were assessed. The results demonstrated that Mn levels in blood, hair and drinking water were higher in rural children than in urban children (p<0.01). Adjusted for potential confounding factors, IQ, age, gender and parents' education, significant associations were observed mainly between B-Mn and visual attention (β=0.649; p<0.001). Moreover, B-Mn was negatively associated with visual perception and phonological awareness. H-Mn was inversely associated with working memory, and Mn levels from drinking water with written language and executive functions – inhibition. Rural children showed a significant increase in oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, as well as alteration in kidney function biomarkers (p<0.05). Moreover, significant associations were found between B-Mn, H-Mn and Mn levels in drinking water and biomarkers of oxidative damage and kidney function, besides between some oxidative stress biomarkers and neuropsychological tasks (p<0.05). The findings of this study suggest an important association between environmental exposure to Mn and toxic effects on neuropsychological function, oxidative damage and kidney function in children.