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Effects of dietary phytophenols on the expression of microRNAs involved in mammalian cell homeostasis

Lançon, Allan, Michaille, Jean‐Jacques, Latruffe, Norbert
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2013 v.93 no.13 pp. 3155-3164
bioactive properties, carbohydrates, cardiovascular diseases, cell differentiation, fresh produce, fruits, genes, homeostasis, humans, infectious diseases, inflammation, lipids, microRNA, nutrition, polyphenols, proteins, resveratrol, secondary metabolites, vegetables
Besides synthesizing nutritive substances (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) for energy and growth, plants produce numerous non‐energetic so‐called secondary metabolites (mainly polyphenols) that allow them to protect themselves against infections and other types of hostile environments. Interestingly, these polyphenols often provide cells with valuable bioactive properties for the maintenance of their functions and homeostasis (signaling, gene regulation, protection against acquired or infectious diseases, etc.) both in humans and animals. Namely, from a nutritional point of view, and based on epidemiological data, it is now well accepted that the regular consumption of green vegetables, fruits and fibers has protective effects against the onset of cancer as well as of inflammatory, neurodegenerative, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, and consequently increases the overall longevity. In particular, grapevine plants produce large amounts of a wide variety of polyphenols. The most prominent of those—resveratrol—has been shown to impair or delay cardiovascular alterations, cancer, inflammation, aging, etc. Until recently, the molecular bases of the pleiotropic effects of resveratrol remained largely unclear despite numerous studies on a variety of signaling pathways and the transcriptional networks that they control. However, it has been recently proposed that the protective properties of resveratrol may arise from its modulation of small non‐coding regulatory RNAs, namely microRNAs. The aim of this review is to present up‐to‐date data on the control of microRNA expression by dietary phytophenols in different types of human cells, and their impact on cell differentiation, cancer development and the regulation of the inflammatory response. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry