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Biological and Chemical Control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using Stachybotrys levispora and Its Secondary Metabolite Griseofulvin

Ribeiro, Alany Ingrid, Costa, Eveline Soares, Thomasi, Sergio Scherrer, Brandão, Dayson Fernando Ribeiro, Vieira, Paulo Cesar, Fernandes, João Batista, Forim, Moacir Rossi, Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto, Pascholati, Sérgio Florentino, Gusmão, Luis Fernando Pascholati, da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.29 pp. 7627-7632
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Stachybotrys, biological control, biosynthesis, chemical control, disease control, enzymes, fungi, fungicides, genes, griseofulvin, mycelium, secondary metabolites, soybeans, spectroscopy, Brazil
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is responsible for the white mold of soybeans, and the difficulty to control the disease in Brazil is causing million-dollar damages. Stachybotrys levispora has shown activity against S. sclerotiorum. In our present investigation, we analyzed the chemical basis of this inhibition. Eight compounds were isolated, and using spectroscopic methods, we identified their structures as the known substances 7-dechlorogriseofulvin, 7-dechlorodehydrogriseofulvin, griseofulvin, dehydrogriseofulvin, 3,13-dihydroxy-5,9,11-trimethoxy-1-methylbenzophenone, griseophenone A, 13-hydroxy-3,5,9,11-tetramethoxy-1-methylbenzophenone, and 12-chloro-13-hydroxy-3,5,9,11-tetramethoxy-1-methylbenzophenone. Griseofulvin inhibited the mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum at 2 μg mL–¹. Thus, the antagonistic effect of S. levispora to S. sclerotiorum may well be due to the presence of griseofulvins. Our results stimulate new work on the biosynthesis of griseofulvins, to locate genes that encode key enzymes in these routes and use them to increase the production of these compounds and thus potentiate the fungicide effect of this fungus. S. levispora represents an agent for biocontrol, and griseofulvin represents a fungicide to S. sclerotiorum.