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Spatial distribution of some elements and elemental contamination in the sediments of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey)

Gülşen-Rothmund, Halil İbrahim, Avşar, Özgür, Avşar, Ulaş, Kurtuluş, Bedri, Tunca, Evren
Environmental earth sciences 2018 v.77 no.14 pp. 546
aluminum, chromium, cluster analysis, cobalt, copper, iron, kriging, lakes, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, pollution load, sediments, toxicity, zinc, Turkey (country)
Elemental accumulation, distribution and relationship profiles for sediment samples taken at 81 localities in the Köyceğiz Lake were investigated. Spatial distribution maps for ten elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Mn, Mo, Al, Fe) were created using the ordinary kriging interpolation method. Statistical tests revealed that the sediments taken from areas close to the Namnam (NamSM) and Kargıcak (KarSM) stream mouths have the highest element content. In addition, sediments close to NamSM have the highest contamination, according to contamination degree and modified contamination degree values. On the other hand, sediments close to KarSM have the highest value on the pollution load index. The enrichment factor and contamination factor values of Cr and Co, and especially Ni, close to NamSM are striking and have significantly higher values compared to the rest of the lake. There are strong correlations between these three elements, which were also confirmed by cluster analysis. Ni is the element having the highest value on the geoaccumulation index. In addition, according to the toxic unit results, it was found that 84–89% of the element-based toxic effect in the lake is due to Ni alone. According to the mean effect range median quotient values, the sediments of Köyceğiz Lake have a potential to show toxic effects of at least 76% in living organisms, which is due to the high levels of Ni. According to the mean probable effect low quotient value, it has been determined that Köyceğiz Lake is at a “highly impacted” level, which is the worst possible value on the quality scale.