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Development and validation of a method for the quantification of extractable perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in textiles
- van der Veen, Ike, Weiss, Jana M., Hanning, Anne-Charlotte, de Boer, Jacob, Leonards, Pim E.G.
- Talanta 2016 v.147 pp. 8-15
- acetone, humans, methanol, sorption, acetonitrile, tandem mass spectrometry, clothing, solvents, fabrics, perfluorocarbons, statistical analysis, perfluoroalkyl acids, cleaning, sulfonic acids, liquid chromatography, carboxylic acids
- In textiles, like outdoor clothing, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are often used for durable water repellency (DWR) of the final products. The analytical performance to determine the concentration of these chemicals available for exposure to humans and to the environment need to be established. Here a method for the extraction and analysis of one class of PFASs, namely perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in outdoor clothing was developed and validated. The PFAAs which were validated, included perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C4–C14), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (C4, C6, C7, C8). In addition, perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) was included in this study. The method was based on an organic solvent extraction and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). No further cleaning was needed. Two commonly used organic solvent compositions were evaluated for the optimal extraction, i.e. methanol and acetone/acetonitrile (80:20, v/v), and the number and duration of the sequential extractions were optimized. Results showed that two sequential extractions with 5mL methanol and an extraction time of 30min gave an optimal performance with an extraction efficiency of >90%. The influence of matrix on the quantification of PFAAs was studied. This indicated ion suppression due to different matrix effects or sorption behavior to specific textile samples. Validation of the entire method showed overall recoveries of>80% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of<9% (n=3) for repeatability and <20% (n=3) for reproducibility. This is the first validation of an analytical method for the analysis of extractable PFCAs, PFSAs and FOSA associated to textiles, which is of high importance due to the regulation of PFAAs in textile.