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Addition of ethanol to supercritical carbon dioxide enhances the inactivation of bacterial spores in the biofilm of Bacillus cereus

Park, Hyong Seok, Choi, Hee Jung, Kim, Myoung-Dong, Kim, Kyoung Heon
International journal of food microbiology 2013 v.166 no.2 pp. 207-212
Bacillus cereus, bacterial spores, biofilm, carbon dioxide, ethanol, pressure treatment, stainless steel, vegetative cells
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) was used to inactivate Bacillus cereus spores inside biofilms, which were grown on stainless steel. SC-CO2 treatment was tested using various conditions, such as pressure treatment (10–30MPa), temperature (35–60°C), and time (10–120min). B. cereus vegetative cells in the biofilm were completely inactivated by treatment with SC-CO2 at 10MPa and at 35°C for 5min. However, SC-CO2 alone did not inactivate spores in biofilm even after the treatment time was extended to 120min. When ethanol was used as a cosolvent with SC-CO2 in the SC-CO2 treatment using only 2–10ml of ethanol in 100ml of SC-CO2 vessel for 60–90min of treatment time at 10MPa and 60°C, B. cereus spores in the biofilm were found to be completely inactivated in the colony-forming test. We also assessed the viability of SC-CO2-treated bacterial spores and vegetative cells in the biofilm by staining with SYTO 9 and propidium iodide. The membrane integrity of the vegetative cells was completely lost, while the integrity of the membrane was still maintained in most spores. However, when SC-CO2 along with ethanol was used, both vegetative cells and spores lost their membrane integrity, indicating that the use of ethanol as a cosolvent with SC-CO2 is efficient in inactivating the bacterial spores in the biofilm.