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Bio-based polyurethane-polyisocyanurate composites with an intumescent flame retardant
- Kurańska, Maria, Cabulis, Ugis, Auguścik, Monika, Prociak, Aleksander, Ryszkowska, Joanna, Kirpluks, Mikelis
- Polymer degradation and stability 2016 v.127 pp. 11-19
- burning, calorimeters, cameras, combustion, differential thermal analysis, flame retardants, flammability, foams, graphene, graphs, heat, industry, insulating materials, oxygen, polyols, polyurethanes, rapeseed oil, risk, smoke, temperature, thermal stability, thermography, thermogravimetry, vegetables
- Rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate (PUR-PIR) foams are one of the most effective thermal insulation materials applied in a wide range of industries. A sustainable solution for the production of these materials is to substitute one of their petrochemical components with a component produced from bio-based resources, like vegetable oils.The biggest disadvantage of this type of thermal insulation is its high flammability which usually is reduced by an addition of halogen-based flame retardants. Halogenated flame retardants are getting out of use due to potential health risks. Two different bio-based polyols obtained from rapeseed oil were applied to develop rigid PUR-PIR foams with isocyanate indices of 150 and 250. Flammability of these materials was decreased using an intumescent expandable graphite (EG) filler; 0%; 3%; 6% and 9% contents of EG were used. Flammability (Cone calorimeter), combustion (limited oxygen index, thermal imaging), thermal stability (TGA/DTG) were studied for the developed PUR-PIR foams. The addition of EG did not change the ignition behaviour of the developed materials but it had a significant influence on other flammability properties. Due to the development of a stable char layer, the peak value of the heat release in the Cone Calorimeter test was reduced from 240 to 136 kW/m², the released smoke was also reduced from 560 to 288 m²/m². TGA graphs showed a significant char formation (sample with 9% of EG) that was stable at high temperatures, over 400 °C. The addition of EG to the PUR-PIR system had a positive effect on the burning process which was confirmed by thermal imaging camera results. The formation of the char layer moderated the combustion of the PUR-PIR foams and increased the burning time.