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Bacterial community dynamics in surface flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of swine waste

Ibekwe, A.M., Ma, J., Murinda, Shelton, Reddy, G.B.
The Science of the total environment 2016 v.544 pp. 68-76
agricultural land, ammonium, bacterial communities, chemical oxygen demand, constructed wetlands, correspondence analysis, groundwater, marshes, nutrients, overland flow, pathogens, phosphates, runoff, sequence analysis, soil, spraying, swine, swine production, total solids, wastewater, water pollution
Constructed wetlands are generally used for the removal of waste from contaminated water. In the swine production system, wastes are traditionally flushed into an anaerobic lagoon which is then sprayed on agricultural fields. However, continuous spraying of lagoon wastewater on fields can lead to high N and P accumulations in soil or lead to runoff which may contaminate surface or ground water with pathogens and nutrients. In this study, continuous marsh constructed wetland was used for the removal of contaminants from swine waste. Using pyrosequencing, we assessed bacterial composition within the wetland using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) which showed that bacterial composition from manure influent and lagoon water were significantly different (P=0.001) from the storage pond to the final effluent. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that different bacterial populations were significantly impacted by ammonium — NH4 (P=0.035), phosphate — PO4³⁻ (P=0.010), chemical oxygen demand — COD (P=0.0165), total solids — TS (P=0.030), and dissolved solids — DS (P=0.030) removal, with 54% of the removal rate explained by NH4+PO4³⁻ according to a partial CCA. Our results showed that different bacterial groups were responsible for the composition of different wetland nutrients and decomposition process. This may be the major reason why most wetlands are very efficient in waste decomposition.