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Boron application improves yield of rice cultivars under high temperature stress during vegetative and reproductive stages
- Shahid, Mohammad, Nayak, Amaresh Kumar, Tripathi, Rahul, Katara, Jawahar Lal, Bihari, Priyanka, Lal, Banwari, Gautam, Priyanka
- International journal of biometeorology 2018 v.62 no.8 pp. 1375-1387
- antioxidants, bioclimatology, boron, cell membranes, cell walls, cultivars, enzyme activity, filling period, flowering, foliar spraying, grain yield, heat stress, pollen, pot culture, reproduction, rice, soil, soil treatment, spikelets, sugars, temperature, tropics, vegetative growth, viability
- It is reported that high temperatures (HT) would cause a marked decrease in world rice production. In tropical regions, high temperatures are a constraint to rice production and the most damaging effect is on spikelet sterility. Boron (B) plays a very important role in the cell wall formation, sugar translocation, and reproduction of the rice crop and could play an important role in alleviating high temperature stress. A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of B application on high temperature tolerance of rice cultivars in B-deficient soil. The treatments comprised of four boron application treatments viz. control (B0), soil application of 1 kg B ha⁻¹ (B1), soil application of 2 kg B ha⁻¹ (B2), and foliar spray of 0.2% B (Bfs); three rice cultivars viz. Annapurna (HT stress tolerant), Naveen, and Shatabdi (both HT stress susceptible); and three temperature regimes viz. ambient (AT), HT at vegetative stage (HTV), and HT at reproductive stage (HTR). The results revealed that high temperature stress during vegetative or flowering stage reduced grain yield of rice cultivars mainly because of low pollen viability and spikelet fertility. The effects of high temperature on the spikelet fertility and grain filling varied among cultivars and the growth stages of plant when exposed to the high temperature stress. Under high temperature stress, the tolerant cultivar displays higher cell membrane stability, less accumulation of osmolytes, more antioxidant enzyme activities, and higher pollen viability and spikelet fertility than the susceptible cultivars. In the present work, soil application of boron was effective in reducing the negative effects of high temperature both at vegetative and reproductive stages. Application of B results into higher grain yield under both ambient and high temperature condition over control for all the three cultivars; however, more increase was observed for the susceptible cultivar over the tolerant one. The results suggest that the exogenous application of boron had a substantial effect on cell membrane stability, sugar mobilization, pollen viability, and spikelet fertility, hence the yield. The cultivars due to their variation in the tolerance level for high temperature stress behaved differently, and at high temperature stress, more response of the application of boron was seen in susceptible cultivars.