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Biological and molecular characterization of field isolates of Alternaria alternata with single or double resistance to respiratory complex II and III inhibitors

Malandrakis, Anastasios A., Apostolidou, Zoi A., Louka, Dimitra, Markoglou, Anastasios, Flouri, Fotini
European journal of plant pathology 2018 v.152 no.1 pp. 199-211
Alternaria alternata, boscalid, cross resistance, cyprodinil, cytochrome b, genes, mancozeb, mechanism of action, median effective concentration, mycelium, pathogenicity, planning, point mutation, pyraclostrobin, sporulation, succinate dehydrogenase (quinone), tebuconazole, tomatoes, Greece
Field isolates of Alternaria alternata collected from tomato processors were characterized for sensitivity to respiration inhibitors using in vitro mycelial growth assays. Pyraclostrobin (QoI), boscalid, fluopyram and isopyrazam (SDHIs) mean EC₅₀ values were 0.32, 1.43, 2.21, and 3.53 μg/ml respectively. Of the 42 isolates, 36 were sensitive to all respiration inhibiting fungicides tested whereas three isolates were less sensitive to boscalid, one to pyraclostrobin and two were simultaneously resistant to both inhibitors and isopyrazam. Correlation analysis between fungicide sensitivities revealed a positive cross-resistance between pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole, and between cyprodinil and mancozeb. There was no cross-resistance between QoIs, SHDIs or any other mode of action. Sequencing of the QoI and SDHI targets revealed the G143A cytochrome b resistance mutation in all pyraclostrobin-resistant isolates while analysis of the succinate dehydrogenase coding gene revealed point mutations in two of three of the gene subunits analyzed in boscalid-resistant isolates. Specifically, two isolates carried the H277Y and three the H133Q resistance mutations located in the sdhB and sdhD subunits of the respiration complex II, respectively. Isolates bearing the H277Y mutation also carried the G143A cytochrome b resistance mutation. Boscalid and pyraclostrobin-resistant isolates exhibited greater pathogenicity and sporulation compared to sensitive isolates, respectively. Isolates with cross-resistance exhibited greater pathogenicity and sporulation but slower mycelial growth compared to sensitive isolates. This is the first report of field isolates of A. alternata with single or double resistance to QoIs and SDHIs in Greece and should be considered in planning and implementing effective anti-resistance strategies.