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Efficacy and timing of application of fungicides for plum rust control in Turkey
- Erincik, Ömer, Daldal, Müzeyyen, Özkul, Yasemin
- Crop protection 2016 v.88 pp. 88-95
- azoxystrobin, carbendazim, chlorothalonil, difenoconazole, disease severity, disease surveillance, field experimentation, flusilazole, greenhouse experimentation, greenhouses, hexaconazole, leaf abscission, pesticide application, plums, secondary infection, tebuconazole, thiophanate-methyl, triazoles, trifloxystrobin, Turkey (country)
- Little information is available regarding the efficacy and timing of modern fungicides for the control of plum rust. In this study, modern fungicides, including triazoles, strobilurins, and benzimidazoles, and a classic fungicide (chlorothalonil) were tested under both greenhouse and field experiments. Excellent disease control was obtained by the pre-inoculation application of all fungicides in the greenhouse experiments. However, only triazoles (tebuconazole, difenoconazole, flusilazole and hexaconazole) were effective when applied up to 6 or 7 days after inoculation. Unexpectedly, strobilurins (azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin) and benzimidazoles (thiophanate-methyl and carbendazim) were not effective when applied at any time after inoculation. In field experiments, early-season fungicide applications effectively inhibited primary infections; however, these applications provided no apparent benefit in preventing secondary infections and premature leaf fall later in the season. All fungicides provided better control over the season and significantly reduced premature leaf fall when applied immediately after rust pustules (uredinia) were first observed. It is suggested that all fungicides tested in this study can be used for plum rust control. Disease monitoring data indicated that disease severity remained low throughout May but dramatically increased in early June. Mid-May is evidently the best time to initiate fungicide sprays against rust on plums; the spray should be applied before or when rust pustules are first observed and when rust is present at low severity.