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Nickel toxicity to benthic organisms: The role of dissolved organic carbon, suspended solids, and route of exposure
- Custer, Kevin W., Hammerschmidt, Chad R., Burton, G. Allen
- Environmental pollution 2016 v.208 pp. 309-317
- Hyalella azteca, Lymnaea stagnalis, benthic organisms, bioaccumulation, bioavailability, dissolved organic carbon, exposure pathways, ligands, nickel, sediments, synergism, toxicity
- Nickel bioavailability is reduced in the presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), suspended solids (TSS), and other complexing ligands; however, no studies have examined the relative importance of Ni exposure through different compartments (water, sediment, food). Hyalella azteca and Lymnaea stagnalis were exposed to Ni-amended water, sediment, and food, either separately or in combination. Both organisms experienced survival and growth effects in several Ni compartment tests. The DOC amendments attenuated L. stagnalis Ni effects (survival, growth, and ⁶²Ni bioaccumulation), and presence of TSS exposures demonstrated both protective and synergistic effects on H. azteca and L. stagnalis. ⁶²Ni trophic transfer from food to H. azteca and L. stagnalis was negligible; however, bioaccumulating ⁶²Ni was attributed to ⁶²Ni-water (⁶²Ni flux from food), ⁶²Ni-TSS, and ⁶²Ni-food. Overall, H. azteca and L. stagnalis Ni compartment toxicity increased in the following order: Ni-water >> Ni-sediment >> Ni-all (water, sediment, food) >> Ni-food.