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Carbon intensity of electricity in ASEAN: Drivers, performance and outlook

Ang, B.W., Goh, Tian
Energy policy 2016 v.98 pp. 170-179
carbon, carbon dioxide, electricity, electricity generation, emissions factor, greenhouse gas emissions, issues and policy, power generation, South East Asia
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), with its ten member countries, has a total population exceeding 600 million. Its energy-related CO2 emissions have been growing and in 2013 amounted to 3.6% of total global emissions. About 40% of ASEAN's energy-related CO2 emissions are currently attributable to electricity production. In view of this high share, we study the CO2 emissions of ASEAN's electricity production sector with a focus on the aggregate emission intensity (ACI) given by the level of CO2 emissions for each unit of electricity produced. Drivers of ACI are analysed for individual countries and spatial analysis is conducted by comparing factors contributing to differences between the ACIs of individual countries and that of the ASEAN average. Arising from these analyses and in light of the current developments, it is concluded that drastic actions need to be taken both at the national and regional levels in order to reduce growth in the region's electricity-related CO2 emissions. Two key policy issues, namely overcoming national circumstances to improve electricity generation mix and improving power generation efficiency, are further discussed.