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Utilization of agricultural and forest industry waste and residues in natural fiber-polymer composites: A review
- Väisänen, Taneli, Haapala, Antti, Lappalainen, Reijo, Tomppo, Laura
- Waste management 2016 v.54 pp. 62-73
- additives, anaerobic digestion, composting, energy, forest industries, industrial wastes, organic wastes
- Natural fiber-polymer composites (NFPCs) are becoming increasingly utilized in a wide variety of applications because they represent an ecological and inexpensive alternative to conventional petroleum-derived materials. On the other hand, considerable amounts of organic waste and residues from the industrial and agricultural processes are still underutilized as low-value energy sources. Organic materials are commonly disposed of or subjected to the traditional waste management methods, such as landfilling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The use of organic waste and residue materials in NFPCs represents an ecologically friendly and a substantially higher value alternative. This is a comprehensive review examining how organic waste and residues could be utilized in the future as reinforcements or additives for NFPCs from the perspective of the recently reported work in this field.