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To Be Fibrils or To Be Nanofilms? Oligomers Are Building Blocks for Fibril and Nanofilm Formation of Fragments of Aβ Peptide
- Selivanova, Olga M., Surin, Alexey K., Ryzhykau, Yury L., Glyakina, Anna V., Suvorina, Mariya Yu., Kuklin, Alexander I., Rogachevsky, Vadim V., Galzitskaya, Oxana V.
- Langmuir 2018 v.34 no.6 pp. 2332-2343
- X-radiation, amyloid, electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, models, nanosheets, peptides, polymerization, therapeutics
- To identify the key stages in the amyloid fibril formation we studied the aggregation of amyloidogenic fragments of Aβ peptide, Aβ(16–25), Aβ(31–40), and Aβ(33–42), using the methods of electron microscopy, X-ray analysis, mass spectrometry, and structural modeling. We have found that fragments Aβ(31–40) and Aβ(33–42) form amyloid fibrils in the shape of bundles and ribbons, while fragment Aβ(16–25) forms only nanofilms. We are the first who performed 2D reconstruction of amyloid fibrils by the Markham rotation technique on electron micrographs of negatively stained fragments of Aβ peptide. Combined analysis of the data allows us to speculate that both the fibrils and the films are formed via association of ring-shaped oligomers with the external diameter of about 6 to 7 nm, the internal diameter of 2 to 3 nm, and the height of ∼3 nm. We conclude that such oligomers are the main building blocks in fibrils of any morphology. The interaction of ring oligomers with each other in different ways makes it possible to explain their polymorphism. The new mechanism of polymerization of amyloidogenic proteins and peptides, described here, could stimulate new approaches in the development of future therapeutics for the treatment of amyloid-related diseases.