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Influence of Epidemiological Factors on the Bioherbicidal Efficacy of a Xanthomonas campestris Isolate on Common Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium)

C. Douglas Boyette, Robert E. Hoagland
Journal of experimental biology and agricultural sciences 2013 v.1 no.4 pp. 209-216
Xanthium strumarium, Xanthomonas campestris, biomass, biopesticides, developmental stages, dew, greenhouse experimentation, greenhouses, herbicidal properties, inoculum, leaves, mortality, pathogens, plant growth, temperature, virulence
Greenhouse and controlled-environment studies were conducted to determine the effects of incubation temperature, dew period temperature and duration, plant growth stage, and cell concentration on the bioherbicidal efficacy of a highly virulent isolate (LVA987) of the bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris, as a bioherbicide against Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur). X. campestris infected cocklebur at 20, 25, 30, and 35ºC but the disease achieved at 20ºC was not sufficient to cause high plant mortality. Plant mortality was also significantly lower in plants that were exposed to < 12 h of dew, or at dew temperatures of 15 or 35 ºC. Plants at the 0-4 leaf stage were controlled more efficaciously than older plants, and increasing cell concentration from 105 to 109 cells ml–1 resulted in higher mortality and biomass reduction levels. Results indicate that X. campestris can infect and kill cocklebur over a wide range of temperature, dew period, and inoculum levels and, therefore has potential as a bioherbicidal agent against common cocklebur.