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Biomedical Platform Development of a Chlorophyll-Based Extract for Topic Photodynamic Therapy: Mechanical and Spectroscopic Properties

Campanholi, Katieli da S. S., Braga, Gustavo, da Silva, Jéssica B., da Rocha, Nicola L., de Francisco, Lizziane M. B., de Oliveira, Évelin L., Bruschi, Marcos L., de Castro-Hoshino, Lidiane V., Sato, Francielle, Hioka, Noboru, Caetano, Wilker
Langmuir 2018 v.34 no.28 pp. 8230-8244
bioadhesives, cell lines, chlorophyll, dermis, ears, energy transfer, ethanol, in vivo studies, irradiation, microorganisms, models, neoplasm cells, oxygen, permeability, photochemotherapy, photosensitizing agents, rheological properties, singlet oxygen, spectral analysis, spinach, swine, temperature, texture, uric acid, wavelengths
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a therapeutic modality that has shown effectiveness in the inactivation of cancer cell lines and microorganisms. Treatment consists of activating the photosensitizer (PS) upon light irradiation of adequate wavelength. After reaching the excited state, the PS can handle the intersystem conversion through energy transfer to the molecular oxygen, generating reactive oxygen species. This especially applies to singlet oxygen (¹O₂), which is responsible for the selective destruction of the sick tissue. Photosensitizing compounds (chlorophylls and derivatives) existing in the spinach extract have applicability for PDT. This study aimed to develop and characterize the thermoresponsive bioadhesive system composed of Pluronic F127 20.0%- and Carbopol 934P 0.2% (w/w) (FC)-containing chlorophyll-based extract 0.5% (w/w) (FC-Chl). Mechanical and rheological properties, in vitro release, sol–gel transition temperature, and ex vivo permeability of the spinach extract PS components (through pig ear skin) were investigated. Furthermore, photodynamic activity of the system was accessed through uric acid and time-solved measurements. The sol–gel transition temperature obtained for the FC-Chl system was 28.8 ± 0.3 °C. Rheological and texture properties of the platform were suitable for use as a dermatological system, exhibiting easy application and good characteristics of retention in the place of administration. In vitro release studies showed the presence of two distinct mechanisms that reasonably obey the zero-order and first-order kinetics models. PS components presented skin permeability and reached a permeation depth of 830 μm (between the epidermis and dermis). The photodynamic evaluation of the FC-Chl system was effective in the degradation of uric acid. The quantum yield (ΦΔ¹O₂) and life time (τ¹O₂) of singlet oxygen showed similar values for the spinach extract and the isolated chlorophyll a species in ethanol. These results allowed for the classification of the FC-Chl platform as potentially useful for the delivery of the chlorophyll-based extract in the topic PDT, suggesting that it is worthy for in vivo evaluation.