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A bionanohybrid ZnAl-NADS ecological pesticide as a treatment for soft rot disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
- Morales-Irigoyen, Erika Elizabeth, de las Mercedes Gómez-y-Gómez, Yolanda, Flores-Moreno, Jorge Luis, Franco-Hernández, Marina Olivia
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.22 pp. 21430-21439
- Escherichia coli, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Solanum tuberosum, X-ray diffraction, active ingredients, adverse effects, antibacterial properties, chemical control, drugs, electrostatic interactions, farmers, ion exchange, models, nalidixic acid, nanocarriers, pesticides, plant protection, postharvest losses, potatoes, scanning electron microscopy, sodium, soil
- Pectobacterium carotovorum (Pc) is a phytopathogenic strain that causes soft rot disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), resulting in postharvest losses. Chemical control is effective for managing this disease, but overdoses cause adverse effects. Because farmers insist on using chemical agents for crop protection, it is necessary to develop more effective pesticides in which the active compound released can be regulated. In this context, we proposed the synthesis of ZnAl-NADS, in which nalidixic acid sodium salt (NADS) is linked to a ZnAl-NO₃ layered double hydroxide (LDH) host as a nanocarrier. XRD, FT-IR, and SEM analyses confirmed the successful intercalation of NADS into the interplanar LDH space. The drug release profile indicated that the maximum release was completed in 70 or 170 min for free NADS (alone) or for NADS released from ZnAl-NADS, respectively. This slow release was attributed to strong electrostatic interactions between the drug and the anion exchanger. A modulated release is preferable to the action of the bulk NADS, showing increased effectiveness and minimizing the amount of the chemical available to pollute the soil and the water. The fitting data from modified Freundlich and parabolic diffusion models explain the release behavior of the NADS, suggesting that the drug released from ZnAl-NADS bionanohybrid was carried out from the interlamellar sites, according to the ion exchange diffusion process also involving intraparticle diffusion (coeffect). ZnAl-NADS was tested in vitro against Escherichia coli (Ec) and Pc and exhibited bacteriostatic and biocidal effects at 0.025 and 0.075 mg mL⁻¹, respectively. ZnAl-NADS was also tested in vivo as an ecological pesticide for combating potato soft rot and was found to delay typical disease symptoms. In conclusion, ZnAl-NADS can potentially be used to control pests, infestation, and plant disease.