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Alkylphenol and bisphenol A contamination of urban runoff: an evaluation of the emission potentials of various construction materials and automotive supplies

Lamprea, Katerine, Bressy, Adèle, Mirande-Bret, Cécile, Caupos, Emilie, Gromaire, Marie-Christine
Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.22 pp. 21887-21900
bisphenol A, bitumen, concrete, construction materials, drainage, emissions, leaching, methanol, nonylphenols, octylphenols, rain, tires, traffic, urban runoff, watersheds
Alkylphenol (AP) and bisphenol A (BPA) contamination of urban runoff has already been established. Potential sources of these contaminants in runoff are endogenous to the urban watershed and are mainly related to traffic and leaching from construction materials. This article summarizes the results of experimental work carried out on a selection of building materials, automotive materials, and consumables, which can be in contact with rain, to assess their potential emission of alkylphenols, alkylphenol ethoxylates, and bisphenol A into runoff. 36 samples of materials, new and used, across 7 major families of building materials (PVC, concrete, polycarbonate, SBS-modified bitumen, drainage materials) and automotive materials (body, tires) were subjected to leaching tests with methanol and then, for a selection of them, with water. Automotive fluids were also directly analyzed. The results demonstrate the ubiquitous presence of APs and BPA in urban materials and their extractable character with water. The compounds with the strongest emission rates were bisphenol A and nonylphenol. The most important BPA emissions into water (10 to 300 ng/g) were measured for polycarbonate, tires, some car bodies, and PVC. Nonylphenol was leached in large quantities (1 to 10 ng/g) from PVC, some concretes, SBS-modified bitumen, and body samples. The tires were the only materials having a strong emission in octylphenol (1 to 10 ng/g). The analysis of automotive fluids confirmed the presence of BPA (0.3 to 5.5 g/L) and nonylphenol (2.3 to 2.9 mg/L) in brake fluids, while APs and BPA were found at trace levels in coolants and windscreen washer. Graphical abstract ᅟ