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Ecotoxicological risk assessment of antifouling emissions in a cruise ship port
- Carić, Hrvoje, Klobučar, Göran, Štambuk, Anamaria
- Journal of cleaner production 2016 v.121 pp. 159-168
- Hexaplex trunculus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, case studies, economic valuation, ecotoxicology, emissions, environmental monitoring, heavy metals, marine ecosystems, mussels, pollution, remediation, risk, sediments, sex differentiation disorders, ships, tourism
- Worldwide growth of cruise ship tourism is constantly increasing marine environmental contamination risks, frequently neglected by the tourism practices. Paradoxically, environmental degradation ultimately decreases the quality of resources tourism is dependent upon. Vessels antifouling-related contamination is one of the most serious threats posed upon marine ecosystems. We propose here an interdisciplinary triangulation to evaluate antifouling-pollution environmental risks within the frame of the Dubrovnik Port case study. Heavy metal environmental burden was calculated based on the cruiser ships anchoring data. Pollution impact was confirmed by three independent ecotoxicological studies conducted recently in the same area: heavy metals sediment analyses, antifouling related imposex occurrence in banded murex Hexaplex trunculus and biomonitoring study on Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Antifouling-pollution cost was estimated by applying the actual sea bottom remediation methods in order to present the monetary value of pollution prevention that could be achieved through the non-toxic antifouling strategies. Implementation of these is considered one of the prerequisites for environmentally sustainable cruise tourism.