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Feasibility of a ‘greenhouse system’ for household greywater treatment in nomadic-cultured communities in peri-urban Ger areas of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: an approach to reduce greywater-borne hazards and vulnerability
- Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim, Li, Zifu, Adamowski, Jan Franklin, Ulbrich, Tobias, Mang, Heinz-Peter, Ryndin, Roman, Norvanchig, Javzansuren, Lapegue, Jean, Wriege-Bechthold, Alexander, Cheng, Shikun
- Journal of cleaner production 2016 v.114 pp. 431-442
- ammonium, bioassays, chemical oxygen demand, climatic factors, greenhouses, nitrites, phosphates, summer, wastewater, wastewater treatment, Mongolia
- There are limited studies that focus on greywater treatment and reuse options, particularly in nomadic societies with unique cultural and climatic conditions. Studies relating to household greywater treatment in nomadic-cultured societies are limited. This study aims to address this gap by examining a case with a high concentration of chemical components in the greywater (e.g. where chemical oxygen demand ranged between 35 and 70,032 mg/L). Specifically, an upgraded greenhouse greywater treatment unit (GH-GWTU) was designed and constructed during the summer of 2013 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, in order to assess the technical feasibility, and up-scaling capability, of the system at the community level. Chemical and biological test results indicated that most parameters (e.g. PO43−, NO2−, NH4+) had a high removal rate of up to 98%. Moreover, the greenhouse may extend the treatment period up to 8 months. This study has shown that GH-GWTU is a potential technology that can significantly reduce the chemicals and biological agents in greywater in Mongolian Ger contexts which may reduce the greywater-borne hazards and vulnerability in the area. It can be replicable both at the household and community scale according to resources available for system operation and maintenance.