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Best Available Technique assessment methods: a literature review from sector to installation level
- Evrard, Damien, Laforest, Valérie, Villot, Jonathan, Gaucher, Rodolphe
- Journal of cleaner production 2016 v.121 pp. 72-83
- European Union, best available technology, data collection, environmental performance, information exchange, pollution, stakeholders
- The Industrial Emission Directive (IED) has strengthened the requirement to apply Best Available Techniques (BATs) previously introduced by the IPPC (Integrated Pollution Protection and Control) Directive. BATs in the European Union are defined and revised through an official framework: the Sevilla Process. It describes a step-by-step procedure of information exchange among stakeholders supported by data analysis and expert judgements. However, it lacks formal tools, applicable at each step, to support data analysis and the decision process leading to the determination of BATs and BAT-Associated Environmental Performance Levels (BATAPELs). This article is aimed at reviewing the methodological approaches available in the scientific literature since the late 90s for regional or local applications.This literature review begins with a presentation of the legal context in which the BATs are used, especially under the IED. Then, the methodology used to establish the literature review is detailed; followed by an analysis of the different methods. The outcome is an identification of their objectives, methodological approaches and limits in the case of BAT determination for an industrial sector and the comparison of site performance with identified BATs with a view to selecting techniques adapted to a given installation. From the literature review, seven steps to determine and apply BATs are deduced: (1) Scope and objective definitions; (2) Knowledge of the sector studied to identify key performance indicators; (3) Identification of representative installations; (4) Data collection; (5) Selection of a list of BATs and determination of BATAELs; (6) Site performance analysis and comparison with BATs; (7) Selection of the most appropriate BATs. Finally, this proposition is discussed and perspectives are identified.