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Product–Service System applied to Distributed Renewable Energy: A classification system, 15 archetypal models and a strategic design tool

Emili, Silvia, Ceschin, Fabrizio, Harrison, David
Energy for sustainable development 2016 v.32 pp. 71-98
business enterprises, energy, experts, models, renewable energy sources, Botswana, South Africa
Access to modern energy services represents a great challenge for about 1.4 billion people living in low and middle-income contexts. This paper discusses the combination of Distributed Renewable Energy (DRE) with Product-Service Systems (PSS) business models, an approach that is considered promising to deliver sustainable energy solutions in these contexts. This paper aims at filling the knowledge gap regarding the combination of these two models. In particular it puts forward a comprehensive classification able to encompass all the most important dimensions characterising PSS applied to DRE, and identifies 15 archetypal models of PSS applied to DRE. This new classification system and the related archetypal models have been tested and evaluated with companies and experts from Botswana and South Africa, showing their potential to be used as a strategic design tool to support innovation in this field.