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Waxy Soft White Wheat: Extrusion Characteristics and Thermal and Rheological Properties
- Kowalski, Ryan J., Morris, Craig F., Ganjyal, Girish M.
- Cereal chemistry 2015 v.92 no.2 pp. 145-153
- absorption, energy, extrusion, gelatinization, ingredients, rheological properties, soft white wheat, solubilization, temperature, thermal properties, water solubility, wheat flour
- Waxy wheat flour was analyzed for its thermal and rheological properties and was extruded to evaluate its potential for extruded products. Normal soft white wheat flour was analyzed with the same methods and same extrusion conditions to directly compare differences between the two types of flour. Through DSC analysis, energy. Rapid visco-analysis indicated that the waxy wheat flour pasted much more quickly and at lower temperatures than the normal wheat flour. Preliminary waxy wheat flour was found to have a higher gelatinization peak temperature of 66.4°C than normal wheat at 64.0°C, although the transition required 2.00 J/g less extrusion experiments were conducted to determine the optimal screw profile for waxy wheat with respect to maximum radial expansion. The optimum screw profile was used for extrusion trials with varying flour moisture (15-25% wb) and extruder screw speed (200-400 rpm) while monitoring process conditions including back pressure and specific mechanical energy. Physical properties of the extrudates were then studied. The radial expansion ratios of the waxy wheat extrudates exceeded those of the normal wheat extrudates by nearly twice as much, and it was observed that the waxy wheat flour took less energy in the form of fewer shear screw elements to expand. The waxy wheat extrudates also exhibited significantly higher water solubility and less water absorption than the normal wheat extrudates owing to solubilizing of the extrudates. The results of our study indicate that waxy wheat flour may be a viable ingredient for creating direct expanded products with less energy.