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Changes in empyema among U.S. children in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era
- Wiese, Andrew D., Griffin, Marie R., Zhu, Yuwei, Mitchel, Edward F., Grijalva, Carlos G.
- Vaccine 2016 v.34 no.50 pp. 6243-6249
- census data, children, confidence interval, etiology, pneumonia, serotypes, vaccines, United States
- Parapneumonic empyema, a serious complication of pneumonia, started increasing among U.S. children before the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000, and continued afterwards. This increase was due in part to pneumococcal serotypes not included in PCV7 that were included in the new 13-valent (PCV13) vaccine introduced in 2010. We assessed changes in the incidence of empyema hospitalizations among U.S. children after PCV13 introduction.We calculated annualized empyema hospitalization rates among U.S. children <18years using Nationwide Inpatient Sample and Census data (1997–2013) for four periods based on PCV7 and PCV13 introductions. Relative rates (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by age group and sex, comparing PCV7 [early-PCV7 (2001–2005) and late-PCV7 (2006–2009)] and PCV13 (2011–2013) periods with the pre-PCV7 period (1997–1999). Secondary analyses examined changes in pneumococcal, streptococcal, staphylococcal and unspecified empyema.Among children <18years of age, annualized empyema hospitalization rates peaked at 3.6 per 100,000 in the late-PCV7 period compared with 2.1 per 100,000 in the pre-PCV7 period [RR: 1.70 (95% CI: 1.11–2.60)]. However, annualized rates in the post-PCV13 period declined to 2.0 per 100,000, similar to rates in the pre-PCV7 period. Empyema rates among children <2years were lower in the post-PCV13 period compared to the pre-PCV7 period [RR: 0.77 (95% CI: 0.61–0.96)], but rates in the two periods among children 2–4 and 5–17years were similar. Most empyema were of unspecified etiology. Pneumococcal and unspecified empyema declined after PCV13 introduction.Although empyema hospitalization rates among U.S. children peaked after PCV7 introduction, rates decreased substantially following the introduction of PCV13.