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Degradation of cis- and trans-(4-methylcyclohexyl) methanol in activated sludge
- Yuan, Li, Zhi, Wei, Liu, Yangsheng, Smiley, Elizabeth, Gallagher, Daniel, Chen, Xi, Dietrich, Andrea M., Zhang, Husen
- Journal of hazardous materials 2016 v.306 pp. 247-256
- Acinetobacter, acetates, acids, activated sludge, adsorption, bacteria, biodegradation, carbon dioxide, drinking water, environmental degradation, environmental fate, glucose, half life, isomers, kinetics, nitrates, nucleotide sequences, prediction, ribosomal RNA, wastewater, water treatment, West Virginia
- Crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (MCHM) caused extensive contamination of drinking water, wastewater, and the environment during the 2014 West Virginia Chemical Spill. However, information related to the environmental degradation of cis- and trans-4-MCHM, the main components of the crude 4-MCHM mixture, remains largely unknown. This study is among the first to investigate the degradation kinetics and transformation of 4-MCHM isomers in activated sludge. The 4-MCHM loss was mainly due to biodegradation to form carbon dioxide (CO2), plus acetic, propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric acids with little contribution from adsorption. The biodegradation of 4-MCHM isomers followed the first-order kinetic model with half-lives higher than 0.50 days. Nitrate augmented the degradation of 4-MCHM isomers, while glucose and acetate decreased their degradation. One 4-MCHM-degrading bacterium isolated from activated sludge was identified as Acinetobacter bouvetii strain EU40 based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. This study will enhance the prediction of the environmental fate of 4-MCHM in water treatment systems.