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E25 stratified torch ignition engine emissions and combustion analysis

Rodrigues Filho, Fernando Antonio, Baêta, José Guilherme Coelho, Teixeira, Alysson Fernandes, Valle, Ramón Molina, de Souza, José Leôncio Fonseca
Energy conversion and management 2016 v.121 pp. 251-271
air pollution, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, combustion, emissions, energy use and consumption, fossil fuels, gasoline, greenhouse gases, laws and regulations, nitrogen oxides, nozzles, prototypes, thermal energy
Vehicular emissions significantly increase atmospheric air pollution and greenhouse gases (GHG). This fact associated with fast global vehicle fleet growth calls for prompt scientific community technological solutions in order to promote a significant reduction in vehicle fuel consumption and emissions, especially of fossil fuels to comply with future legislation. To meet this goal, a prototype stratified torch ignition (STI) engine was built from a commercial existing baseline engine. In this system, combustion starts in a pre-combustion chamber, where the pressure increase pushes the combustion jet flames through calibrated nozzles to be precisely targeted into the main chamber. These combustion jet flames are endowed with high thermal and kinetic energy, being able to generate a stable lean combustion process. The high kinetic and thermal energy of the combustion jet flame results from the load stratification. This is carried out through direct fuel injection in the pre-combustion chamber by means of a prototype gasoline direct injector (GDI) developed for a very low fuel flow rate. In this work the engine out-emissions of CO, NOx, HC and CO2 of the STI engine are presented and a detailed analysis supported by the combustion parameters is conducted. The results obtained in this work show a significant decrease in the specific emissions of CO, NOx and CO2 of the STI engine in comparison with the baseline engine. On the other hand, HC specific emission increased due to wall wetting from the fuel hitting in the pre-combustion chamber wall.