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Transportation fuel production from gasified biomass integrated with a pulp and paper mill - Part B: Analysis of economic performance and greenhouse gas emissions

Isaksson, Johan, Jansson, Mikael, Åsblad, Anders, Berntsson, Thore
Energy 2016 v.103 pp. 522-532
biofuels, biomass, biorefining, carbon dioxide, economic performance, electricity, electricity generation, fuel production, gasification, greenhouse gas emissions, greenhouse gases, heat, methanol, natural gas, prices, profits and margins, pulp and paper mills, synthesis gas, transportation
This paper presents a comparison between four gasification-based biorefineries integrated with a pulp and paper mill. It is a continuation of 'Transportation fuel production from gasified biomass integrated with a pulp and paper mill - Part A: Heat integration and system performance'. Synthesis into methanol, Fischer-Tropsch crude or synthetic natural gas, or electricity generation in a gas turbine combined cycle, were evaluated. The concepts were assessed in terms of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and economic performance. Net annual profits were positive for all biofuel cases for an annuity factor of 0.1 in the year 2030; however, the results are sensitive to biofuel selling prices and CO2,eq charge. Additionally, GHG emissions from grid electricity are highly influential on the results since all biofuel processes require external power. Credits for stored CO2 might be necessary for processes to be competitive, i.e. storage of separated CO2 from the syngas conditioning has an important role to play. Without CO2 storage, the gas turbine case is better than, or equal to, biofuels regarding GHG emissions. Efficiency measures at the host mill prior to heat integration of a gasification process are beneficial from the perspective of GHG emissions, while having a negative impact on the economy.