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Biases in community structures of ammonia/ammonium-oxidizing microorganisms caused by insufficient DNA extractions from Baijiang soil revealed by comparative analysis of coastal wetland sediment and rice paddy soil

Han, Ping, Li, Meng, Gu, Ji-Dong
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2013 v.97 no.19 pp. 8741-8756
DNA, bacteria, coastal soils, community structure, conservation areas, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, genes, paddy soils, ribosomal RNA, rice, sediments, soil sampling, wetlands, China
Repetitive extraction of DNAs from surface sediments of a coastal wetland in Mai Po Nature Reserve (MP) of Hong Kong and surface Baijiang soils from a rice paddy (RP) in Northeast China was conducted to compare the microbial diversity in this study. Community structures of ammonia/ammonium-oxidizing microorganisms in these samples were analyzed by PCR-DGGE technique. The diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria were also analyzed based on archaeal and bacterial ammonia monooxygenase subunit A encoding (amoA) and anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes, respectively. DGGE profiles of archaeal and bacterial amoA and anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed a similar pattern among all five repetitively extracted DNA fractions from both MP and RP, except the anammox bacteria in RP, indicating a more diverse anammox community retrieved in the second to the fifth fractions than the first one. Both soil and marine group AOA were detected while soil and coastal group AOB and Scalindua-anammox bacteria were dominant in MP. Soil group AOA and marine group AOB were dominant in RP, while both Scalindua and Kuenenia species were detected in RP. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the abundance of archaeal and bacterial amoA and anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes was significantly correlated with the DNA concentrations of the five DNA fractions from MP, but not from RP (except the archaeal amoA gene). Results suggest that anammox bacteria diversity may be biased by insufficient DNA extraction of rice paddy soil samples.