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Biological Control of the Weed Hemp Sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) in Rice (Oryza sativa) by the Fungus Myrothecium verrucaria
- Clyde D. Boyette, Robert E. Hoagland, Kenneth C. Stetina
- Agronomy 2014 v.4 no.1 pp. 74-89
- Myrothecium verrucaria, Oryza sativa, Sesbania exaltata, acifluorfen, agronomy, biological control, field experimentation, fungi, grain yield, greenhouse experimentation, greenhouses, hemp, herbicidal properties, inoculum, mortality, mycelium, paddies, pesticide formulations, rice, seedlings, surfactants, weed control, weeds
- In greenhouse and field experiments, a mycelial formulation of the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (IMI 361690) containing 0.20% Silwet L-77 surfactant exhibited high bioherbicidal efficacy against the problematic weed hemp sesbania. Infection and mortality levels of 100% of hemp sesbania seedlings occurred within 48 h after fungal application in the greenhouse. In rice field tests conducted over a three year period, M. verrucaria at an inoculum concentration of 50 g L−1 (dry mycelium equivalent) controlled 95% of ≤20 cm tall hemp sesbania plants. M. verrucaria also controlled larger plants (≥60 cm tall) using this high inoculum concentration. This level of weed control, as well as rice yields from plots where weeds were effectively controlled, were similar to those which occurred with the herbicide acifluorfen. These results suggest that a mycelial formulation of M. verrucaria has potential as a bioherbicide for controlling hemp sesbania in rice.