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Determinants and morbidities of multiple anthropometric deficits in southwest rural Ethiopia

Fentahun, Netsanet, Belachew, Tefera, Lachat, Carl
Nutrition 2016 v.32 no.11-12 pp. 1243-1249
children, confidence interval, females, foods, growth retardation, households, immunization, malnutrition, morbidity, nationalities and ethnic groups, nutrition risk assessment, nutritional intervention, odds ratio, regression analysis, sampling, surveys, underweight, Ethiopia
The aim of this study was to compare undernutrition with child morbidity and their determinants according to a composite index of anthropometrical failures and conventional indices.We used data generated from three rounds of a longitudinal panel survey conducted in nine districts in Oromiya Region and the Southern Nations, Nationality and Peoples Region of Ethiopia. We estimated undernutrition using conventional indices and composite index of anthropometrical failures. Included in this analysis were 579, 674, and 674 children age <5 y in rounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The households were recruited using the expanded program on immunization sampling method. The hierarchical nature of the data Applied nutritional investigation was taken into account during the statistical analysis using a two-level mixed-effects logistic regression model.A composite index of anthropological failure, estimated 45.1%, 42.4%, and 46.4% of the children were undernourished in round 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The conventional indices estimated 24.4%, 24.2%, and 30.4% underweight in round 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Being female (odds ratio [OR], 7.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9–14.0); low dietary diversity (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.6–5.9); medium dietary diversity (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–3.3), and no special foods during illness (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2–2.8) were determinant of multiple anthropometrical failures. Children with multiple anthropometric failures were 2.6 times more likely to report child morbidities (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1–5.9). However, none of the conventional indices were associated with any of the reported child morbidities, such as stunting (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8–1.4), wasting (OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.5–1.6), or underweight (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0–2.0).The conventional indices underestimated the prevalence of undernutrition by 20.7%. Children with multiple anthropometric failures are at high risk for developing child morbidities and should benefit from nutrition intervention to reduce child morbidities.