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Effects of transdermal fentanyl solution application and subsequent naloxone hydrochloride administration on minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in dogs
- Grasso, Stefania C., Ko, Jeff C., Weil, Ann B., Hess, Jennifer A., Paranjape, Vaidehi, Payton, Mark
- Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2018 v.253 no.4 pp. 431-436
- blood pressure, carbon dioxide, dogs, fentanyl, heart rate, isoflurane, mixed breeds, naloxone, oxygen, respiratory rate, sodium chloride, tail
- OBJECTIVE To assess the isoflurane-sparing effect of a transdermal formulation of fentanyl solution (TFS) and subsequent naloxone administration in dogs. DESIGN Experiment. ANIMALS 6 healthy mixed-breed dogs. PROCEDURES Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane was determined in each dog with a tail clamp method (baseline). Two weeks later, dogs were treated with TFS (2.7 mg/kg [1.23 mg/lb]), and the MAC of isoflurane was determined 4 and 24 hours later. After the 4-hour MAC assessment, saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was immediately administered IV and MAC was reassessed. After the 24-hour MAC assessment, naloxone hydrochloride (0.02 mg/kg [0.01 mg/lb], IV) was immediately administered and MAC was reassessed. Heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, end-tidal partial pressure of CO2, and oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry were recorded for each MAC assessment. RESULTS Mean ± SD MAC of isoflurane at 4 and 24 hours after TFS application was 45.4 ± 4.0% and 45.5 ± 4.5% lower than at baseline, respectively. Following naloxone administration, only a minimal reduction in MAC was identified (mean percentage decrease from baseline of 13.1 ± 2.2%, compared with 43.8 ± 5.6% for saline solution). Mean heart rate was significantly higher after naloxone administration (113.2 ± 22.2 beats/min) than after saline solution administration (76.7 ± 20.0 beats/min). No significant differences in other variables were identified among treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The isoflurane-sparing effects of TFS in healthy dogs were consistent and sustained between 4 and 24 hours after application, and these effects should be taken into consideration when anesthetizing or reanesthetizing TFS-treated dogs.