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Biodegradation of Lignin Monomers Vanillic, p-Coumaric, and Syringic Acid by the Bacterial Strain, Sphingobacterium sp. HY-H

Wang, Jinxing, Liang, Jidong, Gao, Sha
Current microbiology 2018 v.75 no.9 pp. 1156-1164
4-hydroxybenzoic acid, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Sphingobacterium, biodegradation, biofuels, carbon dioxide, chemical oxygen demand, enzyme activity, ethanol, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, guaiacol, high performance liquid chromatography, lignin, metabolites, oxalic acid, oxidation, p-coumaric acid, propionic acid, syringic acid, tricarboxylic acid cycle, vanillic acid
Many bacterial strains have been demonstrated to biodegrade lignin for contaminant removal or resource regeneration. The goal of this study was to investigate the biodegradation amount and associated pathways of three lignin monomers, vanillic, p-coumaric, and syringic acid by strain Sphingobacterium sp. HY-H. Vanillic, p-coumaric, and syringic acid degradation with strain HY-H was estimated as 88.71, 76.67, and 72.78%, respectively, after 96 h. Correspondingly, the same three monomers were associated with a COD removal efficiency of 87.30, 55.17, and 67.23%, and a TOC removal efficiency of 82.14, 61.03, and 43.86%. The results of GC–MS, HPLC, FTIR, and enzyme activities show that guaiacol and o-dihydroxybenzene are key intermediate metabolites of the vanillic acid and syringic acid degradation. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid is an important intermediate metabolite for p-coumaric and syringic acid degradation. LiP and MnP play an important role in the degradation of lignin monomers and their intermediate metabolites. One possible pathway is that strain HY-H degrades lignin monomers into guaiacol (through decarboxylic and demethoxy reaction) or p-hydroxybenzoic acid (through side-chain oxidation); then guaiacol demethylates to o-dihydroxybenzene. The p-hydroxybenzoic acid and o-dihydroxybenzene are futher through ring cleavage reaction to form small molecule acids (butyric, valproic, oxalic acid, and propionic acid) and alcohols (ethanol and ethanediol), then these acids and alcohols are finally decomposed into CO₂ and H₂O through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. If properly optimized and controlled, the strain HY-H may play a role in breaking down lignin-related compounds for biofuel and chemical production.